Correlation Between Soil Nitrogen Content and NDVI Derived from Sentinel-2A Satellite Imagery


  • Ni Made Trigunasih Agroecotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University, Bali 80361, Indonesia
  • Moh Saifulloh MPPDAS, Master of Geography-Faculty of Geography, UGM, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia



Google Earth Engine (GEE), NDVI, subak, Sentinel-2A


The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has recognized the Balinese agricultural irrigation system known as subak as part of the world's cultural heritage. Subak is the driver of Bali’s agricultural and tourism sectors and, therefore, must be preserved. Population growth triggers the conversions of land functions, from subak to built-up lands, such as those transpiring in Denpasar City. On the other hand, with the population continuously increasing, the demand for food becomes inevitably higher. This has caused farmers to intensify their agricultural practices through, for instance, applying chemical fertilizers excessively-potentially decreasing soil fertility. An example is urea fertilizer that contains a macronutrient, i.e., nitrogen (N). This study aimed to analyze the soil N content and its correlation with rice growth using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The Kjeldahl method was conducted to measure the N levels in the soil laboratory. NDVI was extracted from remote sensing data, namely Sentinel-2A imagery, on a cloud computing platform, Google Earth Engine (GEE), using Band 8 (NIR) with a wavelength of 0.842 m and Band 4 (Red) with 0.665 m. The results showed that the N levels varied from 0.09% to 0.31% and the average NDVI values ranged from 0.47 to 0.54. There is a strong correlation (r = 0.75 to 0.78) between the NDVI values derived from the Sentinel-2A Satellite Imagery and the soil nitrogen content. Spatially, based on the analysis results of the 2019‒2021 data, parts of existing subak systems, i.e., Subak Kerdung, Mergaya, Padanggalak, and Sembung, have high soil N contents and NDVI values.

Abstract viewed = 335 times


Amani M, Ghorbanian A, Ahmadi SA, Kakooei M, Moghimi A, Mirmazloumi SM, Moghaddam SHA, Mahdavi S, Ghahremanloo M, Parsian S, Wu Q, Brisco B. 2020. Google earth engine cloud computing platform for remote sensing big data applications: a comprehensive review. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 13. DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2020.3021052.

Amano H, Iwasaki Y, Ichikawa T. 2021. Identification of paddy fields using temporal NDVI changes in Minamiaso Village, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan to estimate groundwater recharge. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 633 (1). DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/633/1/012012.

Bremner JM. 1960. Determination of nitrogen in soil by the Kjeldahl method. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 55 (1): 11-33.

Bustomi T, Fitriatin BN, Simarmata T. 2021. Effects of application method and dosage of n-fixing biological fertilizer on n uptake, growth and yield of rice plants in saline soil. Soilrens. 18 (2). DOI: 10.24198/soilrens.v18i2.32072.

Chen L, Liu X, Hua Z, Xue H, Mei S, Wang P, Wang S. 2021. Comparison of nitrogen loss weight in ammonia volatilization, runoff, and leaching between common and slow-release fertilizer in paddy field. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 232 (4). DOI: 10.1007/s11270-021-05083-6.

Chen N, Yu L, Zhang X, Shen Y, Zeng L, Hu Q, Niyogi D. 2020. Mapping paddy rice fields by combining multi-temporal vegetation index and synthetic aperture radar remote sensing data using Google Earth Engine machine learning platform. Remote Sensing. 12 (18). DOI: 10.3390/RS12182992.

Ghebrezgabher MG, Yang T, Yang X, Eyassu Sereke T. 2020. Assessment of NDVI variations in responses to climate change in the Horn of Africa. Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science. 23 (3). DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrs.2020.08.003.

Gholizadeh A, Saberioon M, Borůvka L, Wayayok A, Mohd Soom MA. 2017. Leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen dynamics and their relationship to lowland rice yield for site-specific paddy management. Information Processing in Agriculture. 4 (4). DOI: 10.1016/j.inpa.2017.08.002.

Hendrayanti D, Rusmana I, Santosa DA, Hamim H. 2020. Application of biological nitrogen fixation cyanobacteria to paddy plant cultivated under deep-water culture system. Jurnal Biodjati. 5 (2). DOI: 10.15575/biodjati.v5i2.8510.

Huang S, Tang L, Hupy JP, Wang Y, Shao G. 2021. A commentary review on the use of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the era of popular remote sensing. Journal of Forestry Research. 32 (1). DOI: 10.1007/s11676-020-01155-1.

Khadka D, Lamichhane S, Amgain R, Joshi S, Vista SP, Sah K, Ghimire NH. 2019. Soil fertility assessment and mapping spatial distribution of agricultural research station, Bijayanagar, Jumla, Nepal. Eurasian Journal of Soil Science. 8 (3). DOI: 10.18393/ejss.566551.

Khadka D, Lamichhane S, Bhurer KP, Chaudhary JN, Ali MF, Lakhe L. 2018. Soil fertility assessment and mapping of regional agricultural research station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council. 4. DOI: 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19688.

Liyantono L, Sianjaya A, Sari IK. 2020. Analysis of paddy productivity using normalized difference vegetation index value of sentinel-2 and UAV multispectral imagery in the rainy season. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 542 (1). DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/542/1/012059.

Oli B, Lamichhane S, Oli K. 2020. Use of GIS in soil fertility mapping of Rapti Municipality, Chitwan, Nepal. Journal of Agriculture and Applied Biology. 1 (2). DOI: 10.11594/jaab.01.02.04.

Patti PS, Kaya E, Silahooy C. 2018. Analysis of soil nitrogen status in relation to N uptake by paddy rice plants in waimital village, Kairatu District, West Seram Regency. Agrologia. 2 (1). DOI: 10.30598/a.v2i1.278

Rafie J, Kumar RAJ, Singh K. 2019. Soil fertility mapping of the experimental farm of school of agriculture in lovely professional university, Phagwara (Punjab). Annals of Biology. 35 (1).

Rawal N, Acharya KK, Bam CR, Acharya K. 2018. Soil Fertility Mapping of Different VDCs of Sunsari District, Nepal Using GIS. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 6 (2). DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v6i2.20424.

Rokhmatuloh, Supriatna, Wibowo A, Shidiq IPA, Pin TG, Hernina R. 2020. Spatial analysis of rice phenology using Sentinel-2 and UAV in Parakan Salak, Sukabumi Regency. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 500 (1). DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/500/1/012072.

Sardiana IK, Susila D, Supadma AA, Saifulloh M. 2017. Soil fertility evaluation and land management of dryland farming at Tegallalang Sub-District, Gianyar Regency, Bali, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 98 (1). DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/98/1/012043.

Setiawati MR, Suryatmana P. 2019. Growth response and yield of rice paddy crops due to Application of Blue Green Algae and N fertilizer. Soilrens. 17 (1). DOI: 10.24198/soilrens.v17i1.23214.

Singh M. 2018. Efficient Multi-site Statistical Downscaling Model for Climate Change. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30863.84644.

Song X, Zhang J, Peng C, Li D. 2021. Replacing nitrogen fertilizer with nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria reduced nitrogen leaching in red soil paddy fields. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 312. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2021.107320.

Sukmasari MD, Wijaya AA, Dani U, Umyati S. 2021. Potential of nitrogen fixing microbes and phosphate solubilizers for optimizing soybean growth and yield. AGROMIX. 1 2(1). DOI: 10.35891/agx.v12i1.2340.

Sunarta IN, Nugroho S, Adikampana IM. 2021. Spatial transformation of Subak in Northern Kuta tourism area, Bali: from agricultural to cultural-service. South Asian Journal of Social Studies and Economics. DOI: 10.9734/sajsse/2021/v9i130229.

Tamiminia H, Salehi B, Mahdianpari M, Quackenbush L, Adeli S, Brisco B. 2020. Google earth engine for geo-big data applications: A meta-analysis and systematic review. In ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 164. DOI: 10.1016 /j.isprsjprs.2020.04.001.

Tando E. 2019. Efforts to efficiency and increase nitrogen availability in soil and nitrogen uptake in paddy rice plants (Oryza Sativa L.). BUANA SAINS. 18 (2). DOI: 10.33366/bs.v18i2.1190.

Trigunasih NM, Wiguna PPK. 2020. Land suitability for rice field and conservation planning in ho watershed, Tabanan Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia. Geographia Technica. 15 (1).

Wicki A, Parlow E. 2017. Multiple regression analysis for unmixing of surface temperature data in an urban environment. Remote Sensing. 9 (7): 684. DOI: 10.3390/rs9070684 .

Windia W, Suamba IK, Sumiyati S, Tika W. 2018. Subak system for environmental development based on Tri Hita Karana. SOCA: Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian. DOI: 10.24843/soca.2018.v12.i01.p10.




How to Cite

Trigunasih, N. M., & Saifulloh, M. (2022). Correlation Between Soil Nitrogen Content and NDVI Derived from Sentinel-2A Satellite Imagery. Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal : Journal of Suboptimal Lands, 11(2), 112–119.